CITE: Ferenczi S. The Development of Psychoanalysis. Psychoanal Rev. 1919;6(1):1-21.


In this paper, Sandor Ferenczi provides an overview of the history and development of psychoanalysis, tracing its origins back to the work of Freud and exploring its evolution up to the present day.


  • Ferenczi provides a detailed account of the key stages in the development of psychoanalytic theory and practice, from the early work on hysteria and the interpretation of dreams, to the later development of the concept of the ego and the emergence of object relations theory.
  • He also discusses the challenges and criticisms that psychoanalysis has faced, both from within the field and from outside critics.
  • Ferenczi’s paper provides an important historical perspective on the development of psychoanalysis, and is a valuable resource for scholars and practitioners in the field.


  • “The history of psychoanalysis is a story of continuous growth and development, as new ideas and perspectives have emerged to challenge and enrich the original theories of Freud.” (p. 3)
  • “The development of psychoanalysis has been marked by a constant tension between the desire for scientific rigor and the need to remain open to new ideas and perspectives.” (p. 10)
  • “The future of psychoanalysis depends on our ability to adapt and evolve, to remain open to new perspectives and approaches, while maintaining a commitment to the fundamental principles of the discipline.” (p. 19)
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